A short sequence taken from Bushnell camera trap footage, over an hours period in June 2016, Devon, UK.
The Falcon does her best to protect three young chicks from a summer downpour. Weather play’s a huge part in the young’s survival; however with a good food source, and a well drained ledge, all three went onto successfully fledge in July.
This was this particular Falcons third successful breeding season, now having reared eight young in total.
Nick Dixon, an urban peregrine falcon specialist, has just written and produced a brief history of the Exeter peregrines. An A5 booklet, with 24 pages comprising 7,500 words, 17 photographs and one illustration, is now for sale and available through Nick’s website, payment is simple via Paypal.
The purpose of this booklet is to raise the necessary funding to upgrade the current analogue camera to HD resolution and have it installed before the 2017 breeding season, which will provide much better images, hopefully attracting more attention to the St. Michael’s webcam and also raising the profile of the Exeter peregrines.
It documents first occupation in 1988, through successful breeding from 1997 to date, and includes changes in breeding ledge and resident adults, egg laying, hatching and fledging success, prey selection and diet plus interaction with other species in the locality.
Nick has monitored the peregrines since nesting on the St. Michael and All Angels church, Exeter since they first successfully bred in 1997. Nick collected fallen prey remains from around the tower on his first visit to the church in 1996, to determine what they had been feeding on. Nick continues undertaking weekly prey collections, in what is now the 20th year of the longest running study into prey selection and diet of urban nesting peregrines in the UK. He has watched 55 juveniles fledge from the church, observed hunting, changes in seasonal behaviour, replacement of resident adults, the fortunes of the young, interaction with other species and met many local people with a similar appreciation of the peregrine.
Please support Nick’s continued, dedicated work, click the image below to order your copy through Nicks website.
Wednesday the 1st of June 2016, saw the ringing team back on the clifftops of North Cornwall at a particular tricky coastal site. A first attempt to climb was aborted,due to some technical issues. After a very difficult climb, the second assault proved a major success. Three very healthy eyasses bagged up in spite of only one adult being present for the past two weeks. The young birds were now at 25 days of age, slightly older than the desired ringing age by a day or so, but due to the their location on a very large ledge it was not a problem for the experienced team. They were a bit of challenge to handle and ring, however the team prevailed. All three healthy young Peregrines, were then returned safely to their ledge some 100 feet below the cliff top. The adult male was soon back to inspect the goings on and in due course feed the ravenous young.
Ringing in progress
SWP would like to thank Chris Adams for photographing the team and allowing us to use his images on this post.
Roger Finnamore of SWP gets his hands on some young Buzzards (Buteo buteo), he takes up the story
‘The Peregrine is obviously the core species of our field work, that said however, we do have other strings to our bow. The 1st of June, and I had kindly been invited to meet with George Swan. George has been carrying out a colour ringing project on Buzzards, the venue a large estate in mid Cornwall. Not quite knowing what to expect, George and I met at the appointed hour. He agreed to do the driving, an interesting journey followed as Cornish hedgerows flashed by. We arrived at the first chosen site and George was soon on his way up a substantial tree. A single chick was found at this site, duly bagged, lowered to the groundringed and swiftly returned to the large stick nest.
Again at breakneck speed, it was off to the next nest. Concentration of Buzzards took me by surprise and it wasn’t long before we were at the foot of our next nest. This nest held two much larger chicks,these were weighed, measured, ringed and returned. A completely new experience for myself; getting introduced to a new species a under the watchful eyes of George was one which I mostdefinitely would like to repeat. Very many thanks to George for the opportunity’.
A ‘Black Rock’ eyass was something we have waited for many years to see, since 2007 we have monitored this site and each year the pair have failed to successfully breed. Last year the site was vacant, possible displacement or a new pair choosing to use another eyrie in close proximity, of which 3 young eyasses all disappeared in the second week, probably weather related. However it was with great delight that this year breeding attempts renewed, at this favourite location of Richard Treleaven, which featured heavily in his books ‘The Private Life of the Peregrine’ and the latter ‘In Pursuit of the Peregrine’.
Richard would often name the Falcons and ‘Kate 1’ and ‘Kate 2’ were at the heart of his journals along with ‘the Bitch’, dating back to the early 1970’s. His unique writing style allowed the reader to easily identify the characteristics of each bird in turn as they followed these journal entries.
Ringing Peregrines in some of these isolated locations is no easy task, with correct licensing, co-ordination with landowners, ringers and climbers all having to come together in a small window of opportunity, along with often trying to find a favouring weather slot. However Sunday 15th May, one of only three surviving eyasses was bagged and ringed at the top of this intimidating cliff. Watched by a proud landowner who knew only to well of the struggles of these birds in often un-favouring conditions.
Estimated at 17/18 days of age, the chick was quickly returned to the ledge and within only minutes of its return and the climbing team retreating, the Falcon (unnamed) was seen to be back on the ledge feeding the young eyass. Neither of the Adult birds made a sound whilst this tricky but well executed operation took place, but both remained in close proximity throughout proceedings. The next few weeks are likely to remain busy, however the focus will be to ensure that more birds are rung wherever it is safe to do so. We thank all those involved in this weekends efforts.
The adult birds at the earliest known eyrie to produce young on our North Cornish study area are now a week into brooding three young eyasses. A fourth egg would appear to have either been infertile or may have chilled in some of the recent cold weather we have experienced. This particular site has consistently been the earliest to produce young, year on year since we have been studying this area since 2008. In all but one year ,when it was probably a change in one of the adult birds, plus a change in their chosen ledge that led to an unsuccessful breeding attempt, they have been known to produce young weeks before any other site we record. This year has been no exception ,although other sites close by are also well into the incubation stages, with one neighbouring site also this week producing one young at the last count.
The weather plays a major factor of course; and with food at times appearing to be scarce to come by, having witnessed many unsuccessful hunting forages by the male ,who it would seem at this site carries out the majority of hunting in the early stages of brooding; just getting through that first week is all important on improving the young’s chance of survival.
It was only last year when that last of the hatchlings failed to survive those all important first few days. Exposed to heavy seas and prevailing winds, we have also had numerous sleet and hail showers. It certainly can be a tough life for the coastal peregrine compared with their urban counterpart.
The ground work and close liaison with landowners for subsequent visits and potential ringing work is all ongoing , by members of the team all around the coastline. This certainly can prove to be quite challenging times, to ensure all resources come together at the right time.
Over the coming weeks we will try to keep all of our followers informed as to the progress of the young at numerous sites, and where possible bring you more video footage via the blog and our twitter account.
In early August this year I finished five months of fieldwork studying the breeding biology of the common buzzard. Over this period I located the nests of 36 buzzard pairs and followed their fortunes through the breeding season until they either failed or fledged. ‘South West Peregrine’ have kindly asked me to write a little about this monitoring project and the aims of the research.
To start, a little about me. I have been interested in buzzards since first being introduced to the world of raptor research by BTO ringing trainer David Anderson during my MSc. One of the things that attracted me to studying this species was that, considering that they are one of the most abundant large predators in the UK, these birds have been little studied. Buzzards are also an excellent model species to investigate wider questions concerning predators and prey selection. In 2013 I was given the opportunity to come down to the Cornwall campus of the University of Exeter to study for a PhD with the supervisory team of Professors Robbie McDonald, Stuart Bearhop and Steve Redpath.
One of the areas that we are interested in is how buzzards, with such a broad dietary range, decide what to hunt given that each prey species will require different searching, hunting and handling strategies. Ultimately it would be great to try and answer the question: do individual buzzards display preferences for certain types of prey? These are known as foraging or dietary specialisations. There has been anecdotal evidence of this from elsewhere (see this BTO blog from earlier in the year). The observation of individual foraging specialisations would create further questions, for example: what are the costs and benefits of specialising against staying a generalist? The question of whether buzzards specialise on certain prey is also pertinent to the on-going debate surrounding buzzard predation on released gamebirds. Impartial evidence as to whether these specialisations exist and how they develop may help inform this debate.
A chick with it’s back to food is a rare sight on any buzzard nest, to have three chicks ignoring food is quite remarkable. This pair of adults achieved it by bringing in lots and lots of rabbits. Here, the female is standing on a pile of three young rabbits all brought in over the last few hours.
In order to look at dietary specialisations in a predator you need to understand two things: (1) what they could eat (prey availability) and (2), what they are or have been eating (diet). Although there are various methods to estimate the abundance of prey species, observing the diet of known individuals can be very difficult. The great thing about buzzards is that during the breeding season they bring prey back to the nest whole. This allowed us to explore the diet of different pairs through both the prey remains found on the nests and through recording the adults returning with prey using surveillance equipment.
One of the nest cameras in action
While collecting this information, the welfare of the birds was paramount. To ensure there was no danger of chick explosions (when the chicks fly from the nest early due to disturbance) we gave ourselves a conservative ringing window of 8 days when the chicks were between 18-25 days old. To further minimise harm we also avoided any work in wet or cold weather conditions. This meant that all the sunny days through June and July I was racing round as many nests as possible ringing the chicks and setting up cameras. Now that it’s over, I can look back on the 2015 field season with rose-tinted glasses but at the time it was hard work!
Watching buzzard nests over hundreds and hundreds of hours of video you get to see some pretty interesting things. Here the female had bought a large grass snake back and proceeded to feed the chick the 10+ eggs she pulled out of it!
The following month was spent lugging huge batteries around the Cornish countryside to keep the cameras running. One of the nice things about our cameras (Supplied by Mike from HandyKam.com) was that the recording box was at the bottom of the tree. This reduced time spent near the nest during the weekly battery changes. The cameras recorded footage every time a chick or parent moved on the nest. Within a month I had over 200,000 videos, consisting of over 4000 buzzard hunting hours and over 1500 prey item deliveries. I don’t want to give too much away here as I’m just starting to analyse the dataset but I’ve included some nice snippets from the footage above. If you’d like to see some more nest camera highlights you can find them by searching #buzzarddiet on twitter. I’ll keep SWP posted with further results as and when we publish them.
In the mean time, we colour-ringed over 40 chicks with an orange ring with a 2-digit code on their right leg, if anyone spots one of these birds please get in touch email@example.com
Both Adults on the nest present a chick with a mole.
“If you’re interested in this study, here’s a link to George’s 2011 MSc Thesis on buzzard breeding ecology in Scotland. “
The Annual Birdfair at Egleton, Rutland Water Nature Reserve has come and gone once more. The largest Nature event on the planet often described as the Birdwatchers Glastonbury is a very special place to be amongst like minded people from all over the globe.
This is the second year South West Peregrine have been able to showcase and share some of the field study and research work that the group has been up to. Sharing this work with other similar groups and the general public is core to the group’s philosophy and this year was no exception.
Much interest was generated last year, with the South Devon birds that reared and fledged 3 Herring gull chicks, this year we had our work cut out to find anything on that scale. However, we did bring the events from a ledge showing interacting behaviours between adult birds as the pair bonding grows stronger in the months leading up to the breeding season. This also included some wonderful close up shots of both birds; along with night time shots where the birds have visited the ledge in near pitch darkness in search of a meal.
We were able to display the events of ringing young eyasses on the ledge at numerous Cornish Eyries,thanks to Dale Jackson’s head Cam footage from earlier in the year. Some people said watching this was indeed quite different to Urban peregrines and just watching the climbs made them feel a little queasy.
We had an exclusive update on the Co-operative attacks on Buteo buteo by the #Urban Peregrines of Exeter thanks to Co-authors Nick Dixon and Andrew Gibbs and with the kind permission of Devon Birds, with the publication only being released the week prior to Birdfair. Many Peregrine people stopped by to read the latest events of this aggressive falcon.
The group had produced two short videos for the Hawk and Owl Trust, one in support of the Adopt a Box scheme, where we had sited a Kestrel box in the Cornish Countryside and look forward to the results and opportunities to learn more about this smaller falcon species over the coming years. The second was a Short video shot by Luke Curno on the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) both of which were well received by the large number of visitors to the stand.
Thanks must firstly be given to the Hawk and Owl Trust for their continued support to ‘South West Peregrine’ and once again giving us the opportunity to share our work with the general public.
We would like to thank Mike Nash and the team at Handykam for their help on a number of small projects this year, without whom we would be unable to keep up to date with some of the latest technologies available.
Thanks to Dave Scott who has supported our work over the past few years and of which one of his fabulous limited edition signed prints was the raffle prize this year, which helps to raise funds to keep us out in the field.
If you have not yet experienced Birdfair it must go on your list. A social gathering of Naturalist and Birdwatchers, with something for every age group. A year to go to Birdfair 28 – we look forward to being there once again.